A grant is an amount of money that is given or awarded to an organization, student, or project. In the context of Gitcoin, grants are used to fund public goods. During Gitcoin grants rounds, eligible grants will be able to receive matching funds from a matching fund using quadratic funding.

EOA - Externally Own Address

An EOA is one of a public address derived from a private key. On the public registry, any transaction from or to that address will reference that address. For more details about Ethereum accounts, you can visit Etherscan: Understanding Ethereum Accounts (opens in a new tab)

FDD - Fraud Detection & Defense

FDD is part of GitcoinDao and is responsible for detecting and preventing Sybil attacks against Gitcoin Grants. FDD uses lego to fight Sybil's attacks some of them include Gitcoin Passport, SDD, and human review.

You can find more resources on Gitcoin blog (opens in a new tab).

Gitcoin Passport

Gitcoin Passport is one of the Sybil defense lego built by Gitcoin. It allows a user to acquire stamps to prove his humanness. These stamps are proof of either on-chain activities such as a lens profile, or a POAP and off-chain hard-to-fake web2 actions such as a Twitter account with several followers, a GitHub account with many stars or contributions, a proof of identity with for example BrightId. These credentials are stored on the Ceramic and can be queried to build a trust score for an address.

Verify your credentials with Passport here (opens in a new tab).


Stamps are credentials or proof of activities that can be acquired by a user by connecting and verifying ownerships of accounts both with Gitcoin Passport.

SAD - Sybil Account Detection

SAD is a Sybil defense lego developed by Gitcoin that looks at the on-chain history of a grant contributor to score the EOA of the user.


Gitcoin describes itself as a platform “to fund builders looking for meaningful, open source work”. Their mission is to build a more open, collaborative, and economically empowering world. By giving tools to communities, they help build and funds public goods and bring the future digital public infrastructure.


We say that a user is "squelched" when he does not have his funds matched by quadratic funding because he has been detected as a Sybil attacker.

POAP - Proof of Attendance Protocol

POAP is commonly used to describe a collectible that can be used, for example, to certify the presence in a physical or online event, the participation in a hackathon. Broadly, it describes the gift of an event organizer to people attending the event. You can find more details about POAP in the documentation (opens in a new tab)


A Lego is a composable unit that performs a definite action. You can see it as a piece of software in which, for a given input, it will return an output. Gitcoin Passport scorer is an example of Sybil detection lego developed by Gitcoin that, from the stamps verified by a user returns a trust score.

You can find more details in this Gitcoin blog post: Anti-Sybil Legos (opens in a new tab)

What is Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is a method of understanding data that utilises visualization and statistical techniques to help identify inconsistencies, as well as better understand patterns within the data, detect outliers or anomalous events, and discover interesting relationships between variables.

One example of an EDA tool would be Raphtory (opens in a new tab), an analytics platform that combines graph structure capabilities with time-series analysis.

Ceramic Network

Ceramic is a decentralized network for composable data that simplifies the process of building applications with composable Web3 data by allowing you to browse a marketplace of data models, plug them into your app, and store, update, and retrieve data from those models. When multiple applications reuse the same data models, their data becomes interoperable. Ceramic makes data composable and reusable across all applications by decentralizing application databases.


zkSync is a ZK rollup (opens in a new tab), which is a trustless protocol that uses cryptographic validity proofs to provide scalable and low-cost Ethereum transactions. Computation is performed off-chain in zkSync, and the majority of data is stored off-chain as well. Because all transactions are verified on the Ethereum mainchain, users enjoy the same level of security as in Ethereum.

Bulk transactions

Bulk transactions refer to the ability to send multiple transactions in a single request in the context of web3. The primary goal of bulk transactions is to optimize the process of sending multiple transactions by reducing the number of transactions that must be sent, thereby lowering gas costs and the load on the Ethereum network. This can be accomplished by using a tool such as "bulk-tx,a command-line tool that allows you to send multiple transactions in a single request. This tool is especially useful when sending a large number of transactions in a short period of time, such as when deploying a large number of smart contracts. Bulk transactions can be an effective way to improve performance, and the cost effectiveness of decentralized applications built on Ethereum or other blockchain networks.


Decentralized Identifiers (DID's) are globally unique identifiers that allow entities to be verifiable, control their digital identity and are cryptographically generated. DID's have been designed to enable the controller of a DID to have control over it, breaking the reliance on third-party authenticators and centralized authorities.

You can learn more on DID's here (opens in a new tab)